Founded in 2011 CELAC includes 33 independent countries across the Americas – with the exception of the US and Canada. CELAC is designed to counter the neo-liberal Organisation of American States.
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Venezuelan state owned oil company. The Chavez government took control of the company in 2004 following a political struggle in which opposition attempted to destabilise Venezuela’s economy by shutting down oil production.
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Founded in 2007 from a coalition of Pro-Chavez, Bolivarian Revolutionary forces that made up the Movement for the Fifth International which drove Chavez to victory in the 1998 Presidential elections. Notably the Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV) remains outside of the PSUV but proactively support the Chavez government.
A coalition of opposition parties formed in 2008 including new and old traditional parties including the social-democratic PODEMOS.
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A quasi-governmental US organisation which aims to influence political processes in other countries. This is largely through intervening in media, fostering business groups, lending support and finances to preferred politicians/political parties, election monitoring, and fostering human rights groups. Alan Weinstein, one of the founders of the NED, explained in 1991 ‘A lot of what we do was done 25 years ago covertly by the CIA’

Self-governing community organisations made up of several communal councils. Over 200 Comunas are now in the process of formation.
(Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas -ALCA). Neo-liberal proposed agreement to eliminate or trade barriers among all countries in the Americas except Cuba. Free Trade agreements are characterised by the undermining of labour rights, export of cheap agricultural goods and raw materials, high interest loans and privatisation.
Neighbourhood based organisations of up to 400 families which aim to solve local problems and develop and implement local projects budgeting funding from local and national government. Part of the drive to participatory democracy, all key council decisions are made via discussion and majority vote within a citizens' assembly with at least 30% of the adult community present.
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The political process towards socialism in Venezuela, named after Simón Bolívar a 19th Century revolutionary leader in the wars of independence from Spain. Bolívar and his movement achieved independence of most of northern Latin America. The current day Bolivarian Revolution seeks to build popular participatory democracy in Venezuela and achieve economic and political independence from imperialism.

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